Parental education and the future of Arab childhood
El Rhali Aharchaou
Parental education, like any other education, is a practice guided by a set of principles and rationales as well as by a series of objectives and goals. This education is achieved through a type of procedures and mechanisms, and faces a number of difficulties and obstacles. Although it is a complex task based on a multidisciplinary approach, parental education is an educational practice that rests on educational psychology as perceived by the parents, which is a theory about children, their abilities, skills and needs. These parameters determine significantly how parents bring up their children. Within this purely psychological framework, this study seeks to investigate parental education in the Arab world. The study also addresses three main issues, namely characteristics of parental education, difficulties that face parental education and suggestions concerning what should be done to improve the future of this education.
Keywords: Education; Parental education; Child; Arab Childhood; Arabo-muslim world
Youth sense of security risk in contemporary societies: a field study of a sample of Algerian university students
Contemporary societies coexist with a range of risks, from daily accidents to risks associated with social delinquencies or threats to cultural and civilization identity. These are risks to which states provide all the necessary educational informational and security means in order to confront them. It is not surprising that students are interested in these concerns. However, the basis in these efforts is the awareness of citizens about it, as security is the responsibility of all.
This research examines the extent to which a sample of university students feels different risks and how they look the ways to address them. The researcher has designed a systematic tool for measuring security awareness, “the Youth Security Awareness Index”. It is a questionnaire used to collect data related to security awareness of a sample of Algerian university students. This made possible the identification of students’ perceptions of security concerns and their security awareness.
A sample of 80 students (40 males and 40 females) from various Algerian universities participated in this study. The results demonstrated the perception by members of the sample of the risks associated with social delinquency, followed by risks associated with the safety and stability of the country. The third dimension concerned the dangers of industrial civilization, such as pollution, finally we found the items associated with extremism and tolerance in doctrinal and belief areas. In the last place, we find items related to individual security and the possibility of exposure to various incidents.
Keywords: Sense of risk; Crime; Extremism; Tolerance, Reassurance
The relationship between causal justifications for the continuation of smoking and cognitive distortion among university student smokers
Ali Abdulraheem Salih
The study aimed to identify the relationship between Causal justifications for the continuation of smoking and cognitive distortion Among smokers students. The study sample consisted of (188) female-male student smokers, selected base don a Purposive style. To achieve the objectives of this study, the researcher elaborated a questionaire concerning Causal justifications for the continuation of smoking, which consists of 16 items, and a scale of cognitive distortion which consists of 24 items. The results showed that student smokers used Causal justifications for the continuation of smoking (e.g. I Smoke in order to feel comfortable and relaxed) and they have cognitive distortions. The results of this study also indicated that there were positive relationship between some Causal justifications for the continuation of smoking and cognitive distortion (e.g. Smoking is one aspect of urbanization, I smoke to imitate my favorite stars and artists; Smoking is a way to prove my oneself, Smoking is one of the behavioral habits for adults). The regression analysis showed that cognitive distorsion contributes to all the causal justifications for continuation of smoking
Keywords: Smoking; Causal justifications for the continuation of smoking; cognitive distortion
Happiness and its association with well-being and religiosity among college students from Libya
Ahmed M Abdel-khalek, Sadiq A. Shahomee & Ahlam Younes Alrafadi
The present study sought to estimate the happiness rate and its relationship with well – being and religiosity among a college student sample from Libya (N = 800 men and women). They responded to the Arabic Scale of Happiness (ASH), the well – being self rating scales of physical health, mental health, happiness, satisfaction with life, as well as religiosity. Results indicated that the mean scores on the ASH among Libyan college students were higher than that of Egyptian and Iraqi students. However, the Libyan students obtained a lower mean ASH score than did the Kuwaiti, Omani, and Lebanese counterparts. Libyan men obtained statistically significant higher mean scores on ASH and mental health than did their female peers. All the Pearson correlations were statistically significant and positive between the scales except one correlation between religiosity and physical health in women. The principal components analysis retained separately one factor in men and women and labeled “Well – being”. Based on the present sample and scales, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as happy experienced greater physical and mental health and more religious.
Keywords: Happiness; Physical health; Mental health; Religiosity; Libya
The relationship between burnout and self-esteem among practicing psychologists: a field study of a sample of practicing psychologists in the city of Ouargla in Algeria
Salima Hamouda & Taoues Ouazi
This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between burnout and self-esteem among practicing psychologists in the different establishments (clinics, schools, nurseries … ..) located in the city of Ouargla. We take into consideration some variables like gender and marital status. The problematic of this study concerned the relationship between burnout and self-esteem among practicing psychologists. We used an exploratory descriptive approach which is appropriate to the nature of the research. Maslash’s burnout test and Cooper Smith’s self-esteem test were used on a sample of 38 practicing psychologists. The results of this study revealed that the relationship between burnout and self-esteem among clinical psychologists is very low. The data does not show differences in burnout and self-esteem related to gender and marital status. The findings of this research reflected the studied sample namely practicing psychologists working in the city of Ouargla in Algeria.
Keywords: Self-esteem; Burnout; Practicing psychologists
Psychopathy and crime: Prevention and treatment
Ossama A. Mohamed Rahma
This study deals with the psychopathic or anti-social personality, and its direct relationship with the crime. We also try to explain the causes of psychopathic behavior from the psychological point of view and from other perspectives. We bring to light some common crimes related to psychopathics; in addition, we analyze the concept of psychopathic violence and the resulting risks. The paper talks about the treatment of psychopathic personality disorders, and the available treatment methods. We also examine the methods of personal protection and protection of the society from the risks of the psychopathic personality.
Keywords: Psychopathic personality; Anti-social personality; Crime; Preventive treatment
The role of training and accompaniment in improving the performance of human resources
This study aims to shed light on training and accompaniment, which are very important, and used as mechanisms to ensure effective integration of human resources within the institution and to increase its efficiency.
However, the most common concept is the training (Basic and Continuous), which is used in a traditional method that does not achieve the desired goals. On the other hand, few institutions use accompaniment to integrate the new workers, despite its importance for workers when they joind the institution. It is well known that the technical functions of human resources management are interrelated, it consist in job analysis and design, recruitment, selection, training and motivation, carrer planning . The success of this series of operations ensures the institution’s survival and development. New workers joining the institution are like a transplant surgery, in which the proportion of compatibility between donor and patient predicts the effecient role played by this member, and compatibility within the institution is achieved by the training programs and accompaniment.
Keywords: Training; Accompaniment; Human resources
About the so-called retrospective research in clinical psychology
This work examine the question of retrospective research in clinical psychology. Indeed, clinical practice research perspective poses several methodological problems. Yet the use of research carried out by non-practitioner researchers has shown many limitations. Therefore, the problem does not reside in the need to prove the validity of the research based on practice, but rather its validity in the field of scientific research.
This contribution is an attempt to reflect on the complementarity of practice and research in clinical psychology through clinical examples that illustrate the importance of research that derives from clinical practice.
Keywords: Clinical practice; clinical research; Complementarity
Tunisian tales: content and influence
Kaouther Souissi, Habiba Hamrouni & Lamia Chaieb
What is the image of childhood in Tunisian children’s literature? This question draws our attention to what is written and what is drawn in Tunisian tale editions. Now, research research is making us to deal with a great number of tales which represent childhood in its most disastrous states, namely rape, suicide, disobedience and war. We intend to expose, in the first part of this article, some examples of these shocking themes, then we unveil, in the second part, the results of the three studies carried out on a story album entitled “A surprising monkey” which talks about a funny monkey passionate about imitation. The first study proposes a critical reading of the narrative and graphic content of the story album, through a semiological analysis. The second and third studies are empirical and aim to epxlore how children and their parents react to the content of the proposed tale through focus group and verbal association. The results highlight the absence of critical look of parents and their recklessness about the content of the story, they also show in children the presence of a negative feeling towards the main character due to the threat of stereotype.
Keywords: Story album, Iconography, Semiology, Representations of childhood, Threat of stereotype