Psychology in the cognitive era
El-Rhali Aharchaou & Ahmed Ez-Zaher
AbstractPsychology is a young discipline in Morocco, it’s trying to consolidate its position in society. Although, its teaching began in the 1970s, its institutionalization as an independent scientific discipline did not occur until around 2003. Even if this change represents an important achievement for the development of this discipline, it is normal that this new situation raise a big debate among all those who are interested in psychology in Morocco, and especially about its programs and methods of formation, research and application. Consequently, we believe that our interest in its pedagogical, legal and institutional aspects should be consolidated by another interest that focuses on its fragile scientific situation, which requires at the epistemological level, the determination of its identity and its legitimacy by highlighting its current theoretical and methodological bases. Keywords: Psychology in Morocco; Cognitive paradigm; Cognition; Emotion
Attribution Style among Talented Male and Female Athletes in some Team and Individual Sports in the State of Kuwait: A Comparative Study
Awatef Saleh AL-Haran, Emad A. Alzeghoul & Huda S. AL-Hindal
AbstractThis study aimed at identifying the attribution style and its three dimensions in national Kuwaiti individual and team players from both sex. So, we explored the differences in attribution style of the National Kuwaiti team and individual athletes due to gender and type of sport. A descriptive comparative method was used. The participants were 146 players (73 males and 73 females), between them 98 team sport players and 48 individual sport players. All players, from both sex, were intentionally recruited. Athletic Attribution Style scale developed by the researcher was administered in order to test the research hypotheses. The results indicated that the attribution style for the National Kuwaiti athletes was internal in the first and the second dimensions because the subjects attribute their behavior to controllable factors, but they attribute their behavior in the third dimension to stable factors. Findings showed that there were no statistically significant differences in the attribution style within individual and team, male and female athletes depending of gender and type of sport, which indicates the importance of the attribution style as a predictive factor for sport superiority. Keywords: Attribution style; Sport superiority; Kuwaiti associations; Individual sports; Team sports
Social representations: An approach to study behavior, attitudes, tendencies, and to understand the mechanisms of identity
AbstractThe French theory of social representations stands out from all other theories of social psychology, first of all for its efficiency and brevity in the analysis and explanation of all levels of human behaviors, in particular its cognitive and emotional aspects, and also for its close connection to the collective unconscious. So, it can be used efficiently to study complex phenomena that afflict our Arab-Muslim societies, especially with regard to attitudes, beliefs and inter-group conflicts. But it seems important to translate this theory and make it known to Arab researchers. In this article, we expose this theory, beginning with a definition of the two basic concepts “representations” and “social representations”, then we explain how this theory was born, who founded it, what are its objects of study and its applications and how it relates to processes and dynamics of identity. Keywords: Social representations; Beliefs; Attitudes; Inter-group conflicts; Identity dynamics.
The Relationship between Self-Esteem and Creative Writing among Secondary School Creative Writer Students in the State of Kuwait
Mariam Abu-Salha, Huda S. AL-Hindal & Mohamed Jamal Al-Lail
AbstractThis study aimed at exploring the relationship between self-esteem and creative writing in Kuwaiti high schools, and the level of self-esteem among writing innovators, and the differences in the level of self-esteem and creative writing between males and females. We used a descriptive correlational approach in this study. The sample was composed of 66 students (26 males and 40 females) from high schools in all of the stages of the Ministry of Education in the State of Kuwait. A list of teachers nominate students for creative writing, creative writing scale and a Culture free Self-Esteem inventory were used to uncover the relationship between creative writing and self-esteem and to detect the effect of gender on them. The results demonstrated a positive correlation between creative writing and self-esteem. We found also that gender doesn’t affect the relationship between self-esteem and creative writing. Keywords: Creativity; Creative writing; Self-esteem; High school; The state of Kuwait.
The level of moral thinkning among a sample of the central prison inmates in the state of Kuwait
Fajer Alhalban & Othman H. Alkhadher
AbstractThe goal of this study was to evaluate the level of moral thinking among a sample of the central prison male inmates in the state of Kuwait. The study sample consisted of two groups, the first group consisted of 88 inmates, while the control group included 88 functionaries from various ministries. The researchers used the Adult moral thinking scale (Abdul Fattah, 2000). The results indicated that there were high differences in the distribution of the sample, it appears that the majority of the inmates were in the third level (social conformity) their number was 29 which represents 33% of them, while the number of the participants from the control group was less, it was limited to 15 participants (17%). Concerning the fourth level (respect of law) it was observed that the majority of their members were from the control group (71 participants which represents 80% of them) while the number of the inmates was 57 (64%). In the fifth level (social contract), the members were equal in both groups. We also found that there were no differences between the inmates in the moral thinking related to the type of crime. Keywords: Moral thinking; Crime; inmates